Friday, May 7, 2010

Spouses of Dementia Sufferers Have a Six-Fold Increased Risk of Dementia Onset

Spouses of Dementia Sufferers Have a Six-Fold Increased Risk of Dementia Onset:
Husbands Appear at Higher Risk Than Wives

April 30th, 2010

Strictly Embargoed Until 00.01 Hours (EST) Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Contact: Jennifer Beal +44 (0) 1243 770633

Spouses of Dementia Sufferers Have a Six-Fold Increased Risk of Dementia Onset

Husbands Appear at Higher Risk Than Wives Older married adults whose spouse has dementia are at significantly higher risk for developing dementia themselves, compared to similar older married adults whose spouse never develops dementia. This is the key finding of a study published today in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Informal dementia caregiving for a spouse is a natural marital obligation, and spousal caregivers often report positive feelings toward caregiving, yet it is difficult, requiring time, energy and usually physical exertion. Dementia caregivers have been shown to provide more assistance, and to report more personal sacrifices and stress, than those who care for physically-impaired elderly without dementia. While there are many published studies showing that dementia caregivers are at higher risk for health problems and depression, none have examined risk for dementia in the caregiver.

2,442 subjects (1,221 married couples) aged 65 and older from Northern Utah, USA, without dementia at onset were studied for up to 12 years to monitor for onset of dementia in husbands, wives or both. During this time, 125 cases of dementia only in the husband were diagnosed, 70 only in the wife, and 30 where both spouses were diagnosed (60 people).

The researchers, led by Dr. Maria Norton of Utah State University, USA, adjusted for socioeconomic status, a significant predictor of many health-related outcomes including dementia to control for shared environmental exposures that might influence risk for dementia in both spouses.

The results showed that incident dementia was significantly associated with older age, and having a spouse with dementia. Participants with a spouse who developed dementia were at a six times increased risk of developing dementia, net of the effect of age, gender, APOE genotype, and socioeconomic status, with higher risk in men (11.9) than women (3.7).

“Future studies are needed to determine how much of this association is due to caregiver stress compared to a shared environment,” said Norton. “On the positive side, the majority of these individuals, with spouses who develop dementia, did not themselves develop dementia, therefore more research is needed to explore which factors distinguish those who are more vulnerable.”

“Given the significant public health concern of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, and the upcoming shift in population age composition, continued research into the causes of dementia is urgent,” concluded Norton. __________________________________________________________________

This study is published in the issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Media wishing to receive a PDF of this article may contact

Full citation: Norton et al; Increased Risk of Dementia When Spouse Has Dementia? The Cache County Study; The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, May 2010

About the Author: Dr. Maria Norton is based at Utah State University, USA. To arrange an interview with Dr. Norton, please contact Tim Vitale at Utah State University’s Public Relations office on or +1 435-797-1356.

About the Journal: The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society is a comprehensive and reliable source of monthly research and information about common diseases and disorders of older adults. The journal is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Geriatrics Society. For more information, please visit

About Wiley-Blackwell: Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes nearly 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit or

Modified On: May 5th, 2010

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Alzheimer's Transmission of AA-amyloidosis: Similarities with Prion Disorders NEUROPRION 2007 FC4.3

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Food Combination and Alzheimer Disease Risk A Protective Diet


GAH WELLS (very important statement here...TSS)


AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that transmission of BSE to other species will invariably present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.

76 pages on hound study;

I thought that in Britain dogs had contracted BSE, but perhaps not.

not so fast here;

The spongiform changes were not pathognomonic (ie. conclusive proof) for prion disease, as they were atypical, being largely present in white matter rather than grey matter in the brain and spinal cord. However, Tony Scott, then head of electron microscopy work on TSEs, had no doubt that these SAFs were genuine and that these hounds therefore must have had a scrapie-like disease. I reviewed all the sections myself (original notes appended) and although the pathology was not typical, I could not exclude the possibility that this was a scrapie-like disorder, as white matter vacuolation is seen in TSEs and Wallerian degeneration was also present in the white matter of the hounds, another feature of scrapie.

38.I reviewed the literature on hound neuropathology, and discovered that micrographs and descriptive neuropathology from papers on 'hound ataxia' mirrored those in material from Robert Higgins' hound survey. Dr Tony Palmer (Cambridge) had done much of this work, and I obtained original sections from hound ataxia cases from him. This enabled me provisionally to conclude that Robert Higgins had in all probability detected hound ataxia, but also that hound ataxia itself was possibly a TSE. Gerald Wells confirmed in 'blind' examination of single restricted microscopic fields that there was no distinction between the white matter vacuolation present in BSE and scrapie cases, and that occurring in hound ataxia and the hound survey cases.

39.Hound ataxia had reportedly been occurring since the 1930's, and a known risk factor for its development was the feeding to hounds of downer cows, and particularly bovine offal. Circumstantial evidence suggests that bovine offal may also be causal in FSE, and TME in mink. Despite the inconclusive nature of the neuropathology, it was clearly evident that this putative canine spongiform encephalopathy merited further investigation.

40.The inconclusive results in hounds were never confirmed, nor was the link with hound ataxia pursued. I telephoned Robert Higgins six years after he first sent the slides to CVL. I was informed that despite his submitting a yearly report to the CVO including the suggestion that the hound work be continued, no further work had been done since 1991. This was surprising, to say the very least.

41.The hound work could have provided valuable evidence that a scrapie-like agent may have been present in cattle offal long before the BSE epidemic was recognised. The MAFF hound survey remains unpublished.

Histopathological support to various other published MAFF experiments

42.These included neuropathological examination of material from experiments studying the attempted transmission of BSE to chickens and pigs (CVL 1991) and to mice (RVC 1994).

It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405 ), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.





DEFRA Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs

Area 307, London, SW1P 4PQ Telephone: 0207 904 6000 Direct line: 0207 904 6287 E-mail:


Mr T S Singeltary P.O. Box 42 Bacliff Texas USA 77518

21 November 2001

Dear Mr Singeltary


Thank you for e-mail regarding the hounds survey. I am sorry for the long delay in responding.

As you note, the hound survey remains unpublished. However the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC), the UK Government's independent Advisory Committee on all aspects related to BSE-like disease, gave the hound study detailed consideration at their meeting in January 1994. As a summary of this meeting published in the BSE inquiry noted, the Committee were clearly concerned about the work that had been carried out, concluding that there had clearly been problems with it, particularly the control on the histology, and that it was more or less inconclusive. However was agreed that there should be a re-evaluation of the pathological material in the study.

Later, at their meeting in June 95, The Committee re-evaluated the hound study to see if any useful results could be gained from it. The Chairman concluded that there were varying opinions within the Committee on further work. It did not suggest any further transmission studies and thought that the lack of clinical data was a major weakness.

Overall, it is clear that SEAC had major concerns about the survey as conducted. As a result it is likely that the authors felt that it would not stand up to r~eer review and hence it was never published. As noted above, and in the detailed minutes of the SEAC meeting in June 95, SEAC considered whether additional work should be performed to examine dogs for evidence of TSE infection. Although the Committee had mixed views about the merits of conducting further work, the Chairman noted that when the Southwood Committee made their recommendation to complete an assessment of possible spongiform disease in dogs, no TSEs had been identified in other species and hence dogs were perceived as a high risk population and worthy of study. However subsequent to the original recommendation, made in 1990, a number of other species had been identified with TSE ( e.g. cats) so a study in hounds was less

critical. For more details see-

As this study remains unpublished, my understanding is that the ownership of the data essentially remains with the original researchers. Thus unfortunately, I am unable to help with your request to supply information on the hound survey directly. My only suggestion is that you contact one of the researchers originally involved in the project, such as Gerald Wells. He can be contacted at the following address.

Dr Gerald Wells, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT 15 3NB, UK

You may also wish to be aware that since November 1994 all suspected cases of spongiform encephalopathy in animals and poultry were made notifiable. Hence since that date there has been a requirement for vets to report any suspect SE in dogs for further investigation. To date there has never been positive identification of a TSE in a dog.

I hope this is helpful

Yours sincerely 4



WHAT ABOUT THOSE STUMBLING, STAGGERING, AND BLIND DOGS, the old dog syndrome, just another spontaneous event ???

The signs of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome or "old dog syndrome" commonly seen in dogs are: lose of house training increased barking or whining increased anxiety or fear signs disorientation-appearing lost or confused,getting stuck behind furniture or in corners, walking in circles, becoming forgetful,walking aimlessly,staring into space, repetitious or compulsive behavior change in sleep patterns-up at night, sleep all day

lack of responsiveness other changes,may not recognize you, their name,may become more docile, more aggressive.. You can liken it to human senility. An article at the petcenter says "CDS is not "normal aging". A number of pathophysiological changes are suspected to play a role in its development. These include: * deposition of amyloid plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal part of the brain * alterations in neurotransmitters, including dopamine * increased levels of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) in the brain * increased levels of free radicals L-DEPRENYL HYDROCHLORIDE SELEGILINE HYDROCHLORIDE,BRAND NAME: ANIPRYL OR ELDEPRYL is used to help treat canine cognitive dysfunction by increasing brain concentrations of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Hopefully you can see a difference in a month or so. If you don't see a difference in the first month, your vet might tell you to try two pills a day for the next month. ANIPRYL doesn't work for all dogs. A great writeup on L-DEPRENYL can be found at

"One third of canine CD patients respond extremely well to treatment with deprenyl by regaining their youthful vigor; another one third respond reasonably well; and one third do not respond at all (perhaps there is a variant of CD with different neuropathology). The bottom line is that for any dog that is slowing down to the point that problems become apparent, treatment with deprenyl is the logical route once other organic causes for reduced mental function have been ruled out. Here is a write up on selegline " Selegiline has immune-system-boosting and anti-neurodegenerative effects. ....

Taken consistently in low doses, selegiline tends to extend the life-expectancy of rats by some 20%; enhances drive, libido and endurance; and independently improves cognitive performance in Alzheimer's patients and in some healthy normals. It is used successfully to treat canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) in dogs...Selegiline protects the brain's dopamine cells from oxidative stress. " Some also use alpha lipoic acid and r-lipoic acid. powerful antioxidants to help slow down canine cognitive dysfunction. There is a dog food that is rich in antioxidants for CDS but I am assuming if you supplement with your own antioxidants you don't have to worry if your dog likes the food or not. I know my dog Hammy has become very picky and at least if I pill him, I know he is getting his antioxidants.

Doggie Dementia

Does 14-year-old Fido get lost in his own back yard?

Does he not respond when you call his name?

Does he generally seem confused?

According to Pulse, the official magazine of the Southern California Veterinary Medical Association, just as humans in the 21st Century are living longer, so is man’s best friends—more than 7.3 million dogs in the United States are age 10 or older. And with age dogs become prone to the same age-related diseases as their human companions, including dementia.

A disease of old age affects dogs and humans alike

Kazzy, a 17-year-old Lhasa Apso, is one of the 60 percent of dogs aged 11 to 15 who suffer from one or more symptoms of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS), also known to veterinarians as doggie dementia. "He used to be the most incredible watchdog," says his owner, Olivia Feldman-Rich. "But he’s not like that anymore. He’s quite bewildered."

Experts like Dr. Maritza Perez, a veterinarian at West Orange (NJ) Animal Hospital, say that confusion is one of the four major signs of CDS (see sidebar). Dr. Perez says dogs may "pace around in circles, get stuck behind furniture, or they don’t know where the back door is anymore."

Often the most distressing sign of CDS is that, like human patients with Alzheimer’s disease, your pet seems to forget you and your family. "A lot of people notice that when you walk in the door, and this dog that was happy to see you doesn’t get up off the couch or off the floor to greet you," says Dr. Perez. "And he doesn’t come anymore when you call him."

These symptoms, coupled with others debilitating diseases affecting older dogs, such as arthritis, all add up to a serious loss in quality of life for your canine friend. The American Veterinary Medical Association reports that some 500,000 dogs are put to sleep each year because of CDS.

Researchers say that deposits of beta-amyloid plaques in brain tissues are likely to play a role in CDS. These plaques build up and eventually inhibit transmission of the brain’s neural signals. Still, the recognized symptoms of CDS are behavioral, so a diagnosis is exclusionary, meaning it is arrived at only after all other physical and neurological causes are ruled out.

No cure yet, but relief for some dogs

Dr. Perez with a 14 year-old beagle who is on Anipryl.

While scientists search for a permanent cure for CDS, there is one treatment currently FDA-approved for CDS. Selegiline hydrochloride, whose brand name is Anipryl, may give some dogs relief from its symptoms. Researchers speculate that Anipryl works by increasing levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. Other treatments are currently being investigated, including diets high in anti-oxidants as well as a new drug, Adrafinil, in one Canadian study.

Dr. Perez says that Anipryl does cause an improvement in many dogs with CDS, meaning relief from at least one of the common symptoms. "We have lots of animals on it and it does work," she says. But it’s not a sure thing—Dr. Perez tried it on her own dog with no effect.

Feldman-Rich is debating putting Kazzy on Anipryl. "I’m hoping that it will give a little more balance to his life and make him a little more aware that he’s still here and we’re still here for him," she says. "I always told him that he couldn’t leave me too soon, and he’s definitely kept up his end of it, but I’d definitely like for him to feel a little more like he’s part of the family."

by Debra Utacia Krol


[Image] Research letters Volume 352, Number 9134 [Image] 3 October 1998 [Previous] [Next]


Simultaneous occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in a man and his cat in Italy


Gianluigi Zanusso, Ettore Nardelli, Anna Rosati, GianMaria Fabrizi, Sergio Ferrari, Antonella Carteri, Franco De Simone, Nicola Rizzuto, Salvatore Monaco

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) encompass inherited, acquired, and sporadic mammalian neurological disorders, and are characterised by the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP) in an insoluble and protease-resistant isoform (PrPres). In human TSE, four types of PrPres have been identified according to size and glycoform ratios, which may represent different prion strains. Type-1 and type-2 PrPres are associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), type 3 with iatrogenic CJD, and type 4 with variant CJD.1,2 There is evidence that variant CJD is caused by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-prion strain.2-4 The BSE strain has been identified in three cats with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), a prion disease which appeared in 1990 in the UK.5 We report the simultaneous occurrence of sporadic CJD in a man and a new variety of FSE in his cat.

A 60-year-old man, with no unusual dietary habits, was admitted in November, 1993, because of dysarthria, cerebellar ataxic gait, visual agnosia, and myoclonus. An electroencephalogram (EEG) showed diffuse theta-delta activity. A brain magnetic resonance imaging scan was unremarkable. 10 days later, he was speechless and able to follow only simple commands. Repeat EEGs showed periodic triphasic complexes. 2 weeks after admission, he was mute, akinetic, and unable to swallow. He died in early January, 1994.

His 7-year-old, neutered, female shorthaired cat presented in November, 1993, with episodes of frenzy, twitching of its body, and hyperaesthesia. The cat was usually fed on canned food and slept on its owner's bed. No bites from the cat were recalled. In the next few days, the cat became ataxic, with hindquarter locomotor dysfunction; the ataxia got worse and there was diffuse myoclonus. The cat was killed in mid-January, 1994.

No pathogenic mutations in the patient's PrP gene were found. The patient and the cat were methionine homozygous at codon 129. Histology of the patient's brain showed neocortical and cerebellar neuronal loss, astrocytosis, and spongiosis (figure A). PrP immunoreactivity showed a punctate pattern and paralleled spongiform changes (figure B). The cat's brain showed mild and focal spongiosis in deeper cortical layers of all four lobes (figure C), vacuolated cortical neurons (figure D), and mild astrogliosis. The cerebellar cortex and the dentate nucleus were gliosed. Immunoreactive PrP showed a punctate pattern in neocortex, allocortex, and caudate nucleus (figure E). Western blot analysis of control and affected human and cat brain homogenates showed 3 PrP bands of 27-35 kDa. After digestion with proteinase K and deglycosylation, only samples from the affected patient and cat showed type-1 PrPres, with PrP glycoform ratios comparable to those observed in sporadic CJD1 (details available from author).


Microscopic sections of patient and cat brains

A: Occipital cortex of the patient showing moderate spongiform degeneration and neuronal loss (haematoxylin and eosin) and B: punctate perineuronal pattern of PrP immunoreactivity; peroxidase immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody 3F4. C: cat parietal cortex showing mild spongiform degeneration (haematoxylin and eosin).D: vacuolated neurons (arrow, haematoxylin and eosin), E: peroxidase immunohistochemistry with antibody 3F4 shows punctate perineuronal deposition of PrP in temporal cortex.

This study shows a spatio-temporal association between human and feline prion diseases. The clinical features of the cat were different from previously reported cases of FSE which were characterised by gradual onset of behavioural changes preceding locomotor dysfunction and ataxia.5 Neuropathological changes were also at variance with the diffuse spongiosis and vacuolation of brainstem neurons, seen in FSE.5 The synaptic pattern of PrP deposition, similar in the cat and in the patient, was atypical for a BSE-related condition. Evidence of a new type of FSE was further provided by the detection of a type-1 PrPres, other than the BSE-associated type 4.2 Taken together, our data suggest that the same agent strain of sporadic CJD was involved in the patient and in his cat.

It is unknown whether these TSE occurred as the result of horizontal transmission in either direction, infection from an unknown common source, or the chance occurrence of two sporadic forms.

1 Parchi P, Castellani R, Capellari S, et al. Molecular basis of phenotypic variablity in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ann Neurol 1996; 39: 767-78 [PubMed].

2 Collinge J, Sidle KCL, Meads J, Ironside J, Hill AF. Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of 'new variant' CJD. Nature 1996; 383: 685-90 [PubMed].

3 Bruce ME, Will RG, Ironside JW, et al. Transmissions to mice indicate that 'new variant' CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature 1997; 389: 498-501 [PubMed].

4 Hill AF, Desbruslais M, Joiner S, et al. The same prion strain causes vCJD and BSE. Nature 1997; 389: 448-50 [PubMed].

5 Pearson GR, Wyatt JM, Henderson JP, Gruffydd-Jones TJ. Feline spongiform encephalopathy: a review. Vet Annual 1993; 33: 1-10.

------------------------------------------------------------------------ Sezione di Neurologie Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e della Visione, Università di Verona, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona, Italy (S Monaco; e mail; and Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell' Emilia, Brescia


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. wrote:

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Greetings list members,

ODD that some FELINE in Italy seem to have this same or maybe very similar phenotype of TSE;

In October 1998 the simultaneous occurrence of spongiform encephalopathy in a man and his pet cat was reported. The report from Italy noted that the cat did not display the same clinical features as FSE cases previously seen. Indeed, the presence of a new type of FSE was suggested. The man was diagnosed as having sporadic CJD, and neither case (man nor cat) appeared to be affected by a BSE-related condition.

-------- Original Message --------

Subject: FDA BSE Update - Pet Food from Canadian Manufacturer & MAD DOG DATA
Date: Tue, 27 May 2003 08:07:58 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Statement May 26, 2003

Media Inquiries: 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA

FDA BSE Update - Pet Food from Canadian Manufacturer

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has learned from the government of Canada that rendered material from a Canadian cow that last week tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also known as mad cow disease ) may have been used to manufacture pet food, specifically dry dog food, some of which was reported to have been shipped to the United States. The Canadian government prevented the BSE positive cow from being processed for human food. Therefore, consumers can be assured that their food does not contain any remnants of the BSE positive cow.

It is also important to stress that there is no scientific evidence to date that dogs can contract BSE or any similar disease. In addition there is no evidence that dogs can transmit the disease to humans.

FDA notified the U.S. pet food firm, The Pet Pantry International, of Carson City, Nevada, when FDA learned that the pet food that the firm received may have included rendered material from the BSE positive cow. The manufacturer of the pet food is Champion Pet Food, Morinville, Alberta. Even though there is no known risk to dogs from eating this dog food, as a prudent measure to help assure that the U.S. stays BSE free The Pet Pantry International is asking its customers who may have purchased the suspect product to hold it for pickup by the distributor so that the dog food will not mistakenly be mixed into cattle or other feeds if any of the dog food is discarded or otherwise not used to feed dogs. The suspect dog food was produced by Champion Pet Food between February 4, 2003, and March 12, 2003.

The Pet Pantry products were packaged in 50 lb bags, distributed to franchises around the country, and sold by home delivery only. There was no retail distribution of the product. Consumers purchase Pet Pantry products by phone or email orders. The product is then delivered by the nearest franchisee directly to the consumer s home.

The product subject to this notification includes Maintenance Diet labeled with a use by date of 17FEB04 and Beef with Barley with a use by date of 05MAR04 . Consumers who have purchased dog food from The Pet Pantry since February of this year are asked to check their present supplies and see if any match the description of the product being removed. If so, consumers are asked to contact The Pet Pantry at 1-800-381-7387 for further information on how to return the product to The Pet Pantry for proper disposal. Consumers are asked not to destroy or discard the product themselves. The Pet Pantry will also use its sales records to contact consumers who purchased the affected product.

FDA is working closely with the Pet Pantry International to assure for proper disposal of the recovered product.

FDA will continue to provide updates on this case of BSE in Canada as additional information becomes available.

It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994)

Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405 ), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.


cases have been reported in domestic cats), are characterised by long asymptomatic incubation periods followed by progressive symptoms and signs of degeneration of the brain, leading eventually to death.


worse still, there is serious risk the media could get to hear of such a meeting...


Crushed heads (which inevitably involve brain and spinal cord material) are used to a limited extent but will also form one of the constituent raw materials of meat and bone meal, which is used extensively in pet food manufacturer...

2. The Parliamentary Secretary said that he was concerned about the possibility that countries in which BSE had not yet been detected could be exporting raw meat materials (in particular crushed heads) contaminated with the disease to the UK for use in petfood manufacture...


YOU explained that imported crushed heads were extensively used in the petfood industry...

In particular I do not believe one can say that the levels of the scrapie agent in pet food are so low that domestic animals are not exposed...


1. The Secretary asked on 19 April whether I was content with the advice in para 3 of the record of the meeting on 17 March with the Parliamentary Secretary (Mr Thompson). The simple answer is ''not entirely''.

2. On occasions, material obtained from slaughterhouses will be derived from sheep affected with scrapie or cattle that may be incubating BSE for use in petfood manufacture. Some of this material must be classified as high risk since it contains brain, spinal cord, spleen or lymphatic glands.

Meldrum's notes on pet foods and materials used


It should be noted that under experimental conditions cats succumb to an encephalopathy after intracerebral inoculation of material derived from patients affected with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

Confidential BSE and __________________

3. I have thought very hard about whether the Branch should carry out a similar exercise with meat and meat products for human foods. On balance I do NOT think we should undertake it, but a final decision has not been taken and you may wish to discuss this further. ...

full text ;

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America 14th

ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy

Monday, April 5, 2010

Update on Feed Enforcement Activities to Limit the Spread of BSE April 5, 2010